La.R.A. Centre

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The laboratory

The La.R.A. Centre (Water Research Laboratory) was set up in 2014 to coordinate and integrate complex research involving quantitative and qualitative aspects linked to natural surface and groundwater bodies and the integrated water cycle by bringing together the skills and equipment of two laboratories with a strong operational capacity in the field.

The Laboratory supports public administrations at a regional or local level to reassess hydraulic risk with particular reference to urban and peri-urban areas.

The Centre specialises in advanced hydraulic modelling for flood impact assessment in urbanised contexts.

In this context, the analysis of hydraulic hazard must consider the combined effect of water draughts and the kinetic energy of the current in a very complex domain in which particular risk conditions can arise from the elements that make up the urban fabric and furnishings.

In addition to having supported the Region of Sicily to draft the Flood Risk Management Plan currently in force, the researchers of the La.R.A. Centre continue to collaborate with the local authorities and the regional government to update the Plan and its particularisation in densely populated areas.

The activities carried out by the La.RA Centre range from the development of advanced sensors for the management of water services and environmental monitoring to the monitoring and prevention of pollution of natural water bodies to the development of hazard and hydraulic risk analyses, evaluating the impact of climate change and the vulnerability of various elements exposed to flooding, to the monitoring and modelling of coastal dynamics to mitigate the effects of erosive processes. Furthermore, by integrating the professionalism of the Environmental Hydraulics and Environmental Health Engineering laboratories, the Centre can develop numerous services of high technical complexity to support public administrations, Territorial Authorities, Integrated Water Service Managers, Authorities for the Control and Management of specific services (ARPA, Basin Authority, Port District Authority, etc..) in all those circumstances in which the environmental protection of water and public health must be integrated with the needs of economic development and use of the territories.

Regulations and decrees

The Laboratory has been active since 2014, and the scientific coordination has been confirmed with DP n°246/2019.

The Laboratory manages complex activities, which involve the integration of study activities, full-field monitoring and applied research, and follows the University Regulations concerning scientific and training activities in collaboration with third parties or on behalf of third parties and assimilated activities.


The Laboratory carries out its activities through coordination with the resources of other water laboratories and through its own organisation chart:

  • Prof. Ing. Gabriele Freni (Head)
  • Dr Ing. Maria Sambito (Drainage Systems, Natural Water Bodies and Hydraulic Risk)
  • Dr Ing. Stefania Piazza (Aqueducts and Water Resources)


Recent international studies, IPCC reports, and the European Floods Directive 2007/60 highlight that hydraulic risk analysis must be carried out, considering the impact of climate change in the medium and long term on the frequency and magnitude of flooding.

In an urban environment, the problem is even more relevant due to the small time scale of the meteorological events that can determine the development and propagation of flooding and the combined effect of urbanisation.

With the progressive sealing of surfaces and the increase in surface runoff, soil consumption can amplify the impact of climate change, causing drainage systems that are already at the limit of their hydraulic capacity to be rapidly saturated even during non-exceptional meteorological events.

The integrated approach is based on analysing rainfall data of maximum intensity and fixed duration combined with the assessment of land consumption based on historical – cartographic surveys that allow the perimeter and the qualification of areas progressively urbanised over time.

This analysis makes it possible to define the increase in exposure to hydraulic risk (due to the construction of settlements in potentially floodable areas) and assess the increase in meteoric runoff due to land sealing.

The analysis also makes it possible to plan mitigation measures concerning the area’s urban development and to modify the design criteria of urban drainage systems concerning the necessary limitation of runoff.

Estimating hydraulic hazards in an urban environment is characterised by significant difficulties related to the need for high spatial and temporal resolution data.
Because some flooding is caused by stormwater runoff originating and propagating in the urban environment and that runoff times are generally very short, it is necessary to have rainfall and hydrometric data from a significant number of sensors scattered throughout the area, and it is necessary to have high-resolution data on the topography of the potentially floodable area and the surface and underground drainage system present in the area.

This large amount of data must then be processed by numerical models, at least two-dimensional, to represent the complexity of the hydraulic phenomena that develop in densely urbanised areas.

Commonly, not all the required data are actually available. Sometimes, the analysis area is too large and complex for detailed models requiring long computational times and considerable computing resources.

In addition to the preliminary analysis of hydrological data to estimate flood flows. The preparation of numerical models for flood propagation and hazard estimation, appropriate uncertainty analyses must be prepared to establish the level of reliability of the analysis, to suggest which information needs to be improved to increase the reliability of the estimate, to verify which mitigation measures are more effective and robust for hazard and risk reduction.

These analyses have been carried out using both Bayesian and non-formal approaches to provide a tool that improves progressively regardless of the level of knowledge available.

This makes it possible to apply hazard analysis even in cases where only limited data are available with the prospect of obtaining an initial rough assessment and subsequent updates through the enhancement of the available database.

Recently, the Laboratory affiliated with the Fabre Consortium for the support of managing bodies in the verification of roads of national importance.

One of the main difficulties in assessing hydraulic risk in an urban environment is evaluating the expected damage given the considerable density of movable and immovable assets that flood events can damage.

Under these conditions, an analysis of the assets exposed to flooding should be carried out through a statistical survey (based on historical data on the assessment of the damage caused to buildings and movable property, such as cars, furniture, etc.) combined with an inductive analysis that assesses the mechanisms that may determine the damage by dividing the exposed assets into classes of exposure and vulnerability.

The combination of the two types of analysis makes it possible to prepare a model of expected damage that makes it possible to assess the economic outlay associated with the occurrence of flood events with different return times and, at the same time, makes it possible to assess the benefits of setting up an appropriate system of mitigation measures.

The Laboratory’s decades of experience in analysing purification systems and the quality of natural water bodies has manifested itself in numerous research activities involving considerable complex coastal aquifers and inland waters.

The Laboratory’s activities were oriented towards characterising solid and liquid matrices for contamination and developing complex monitoring programmes.

In particular, in coastal areas, the general objective of the research was to identify effective and verifiable solutions for the qualitative improvement of natural or artificial areas and the reduction of the resulting impact on the marine environment.

In particular, the general objective thus identified has been transformed into the achievement of two specific objectives concerning, respectively, sediments and high salinity contaminated water, part of which derives from the sediment treatment process itself.


The Laboratory mainly uses the instrumental resources of the LIA and LISA laboratories, integrating them into individual applied research or field monitoring activities.

La.R.A. develops sensors and equipment among its activities based on its own patents and designs.

HI98494 is a watertight portable multi-parameter metre that monitors up to 12 different water quality parameters.

The multi-sensor probe is equipped with a microprocessor. It allows measurement of key parameters including pH, redox, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature.

The probe transmits the readings digitally to the instrument, which allows the data to be displayed and saved.

The data recorded in the instrument can be transferred via Bluetooth® to a device on which the free Hanna Lab app is installed.

HI98494 comes with all the necessary accessories in a robust case for transport and use in the field.

The Laboratory has developed and patented its own line of low-cost floating sensors.

The system was developed to be a general-purpose platform to track contamination in sewers.

The system was developed to be a generic platform for monitoring contamination in sewers or natural channels.

The disc is designed to float on the water’s surface and is available in two sizes, with a diameter of 8 cm and 18 cm.

The floating disc contains an acquisition board (currently based on Raspberry Pi4, but a cheaper Arduino configuration is possible), battery pack, inertial localisation system (X-Y accelerometers and electronic gyro sensor).

Data is stored on a MicroSD card. A WiFi module can be implemented to transmit real-time data and correct inertial location data with a WiFi signal attenuation algorithm.

The basic configuration can be completed with different sensors depending on the application we run.

In this first version, designed to track sewer infiltration, the sensors are:

  • Temperature sensor: PT1000 Class B, according to EN60751 2-wire technology, obtained from SensorShop24 Article number:
  • PH electrode: Hanna Instruments HI73127 obtained directly from Hanna Instruments.
  • EC probe: Hanna Instruments HI73311 obtained directly from Hanna Instruments.

Various other sensors can be implemented:

Atlas Scientific ORP mini Probe:

The Atlas Scientific Micro-ORP Probe kit comes with everything needed to create a microfluidic oxidation-reduction potential monitoring system.
This kit simplifies the acquisition of calibrated, high-precision readings from a micro-ORP probe.
The Atlas Scientific Micro-ORP probe is designed for microfluidics and other small applications.
Because the probe is so small, it had to be constructed as a half-cell ORP probe.
A ½ cell probe works just like a normal ORP probe. Still, it consists of two separate pieces, the working electrode and the reference electrode.
The supplied connection board combines the two halves into one, just like a normal ORP probe.

Atlas DO Mini probe:

Accurate calculation of oxygen demand is quite difficult.
Once all mathematical calculations have been made, hundreds of chemical titration tests are required to confirm that the readings are correct across the scale.
The Atlas Scientific EZO-DO circuit gives you DO readings in Mg/L and percentage saturation.
Using its temperature, salinity and pressure compensation functions, you can ensure that the readings are correct, no matter where you are.

Ocean Optics STS Spectrometer:

The Ocean Optics STS spectrometer belongs to a family of compact, cost-effective instruments with highly reproducible results (unit-to-unit), ideal for incorporation into OEM devices.
STS includes the ELIS1024 linear detector in a footprint of less than 50 mm (2″) square, plus all the circuitry required to operate the spectrometer.
The STS provides full spectral analysis with low stray light, high signal-to-noise ratio and optical resolution of ~1.5 nm (FWHM) and is particularly useful for high-intensity applications such as LED characterisation and absorption/transmission/reflection measurements.

The Laboratory has patented and tested its own prototype of an advanced rain gauge.

According to WMO standards, the prototype rain gauge device consists of a container with a calibrated mouth.

The horizontal area of the container is square, with a side of 0.1 m and an area of 0.01 m2.

A capacitive level sensor is integrated into the container. It allows the estimation of rain heights with a resolution of less than 0.05 mm and rain intensities with a sensitivity of 0.01 mm/h. The maximum rain intensity that can be recorded is over 1000 mm/h, and the temporal resolution is 1 sec. In addition, the mouth of the container is equipped with two pairs of laser sensors, each capable of generating a laser beam with a resolution of 2500 points per metre, placed on two horizontal planes offset by 5 cm.

Each laser sensor can identify the size and number of raindrops.

The presence of two sensors vertically spaced 5 cm apart allows the speed of the raindrops to be measured and the kinetic energy to be estimated directly.

The container is equipped with a motorised emptying valve.

The valve is controlled by a timer and the level gauge in the container itself. If the level does not change for a time set by the operator when the instrument is installed, the valve opens, emptying the container, which is then ready for the next weather event.

The instrument is interfaced with a GPS sensor and a GPRS modem to allow remote programming of the instrument and automatic data transfer.

Research products and publications

Dotto, C.B.S., Mannina, G., Kleidorfer, M., Vezzaro, L., Henrichs, M., McCarthy, D.T., Freni, G., Rauch, W., Deletic, A.
Comparison of different uncertainty techniques in urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling
(2012) Water Research, 46 (8), pp. 2545-2558.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Uncertainty in urban stormwater quality modelling: The effect of acceptability threshold in the GLUE methodology
(2008) Water Research, 42 (8-9), pp. 2061-2072.

Deletic, A., Dotto, C.B.S., McCarthy, D.T., Kleidorfer, M., Freni, G., Mannina, G., Uhl, M., Henrichs, M., Fletcher, T.D., Rauch, W., Bertrand-Krajewski, J.L., Tait, S.
Assessing uncertainties in urban drainage models
(2012) Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 42-44, pp. 3-10.

Criminisi, A., Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., La Loggia, G.
Evaluation of the apparent losses caused by water meter under-registration in intermittent water supply
(2009) Water Science and Technology, 60 (9), pp. 2373-2382.

Biondi, D., Freni, G., Iacobellis, V., Mascaro, G., Montanari, A.
Validation of hydrological models: Conceptual basis, methodological approaches and a proposal for a code of practice
(2012) Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 42-44, pp. 70-76.

Freni, G., La Loggia, G., Notaro, V.
Uncertainty in urban flood damage assessment due to urban drainage modelling and depth-damage curve estimation
(2010) Water Science and Technology, 61 (12), pp. 2979-2993.

Freni, G., Mannina, G.
Bayesian approach for uncertainty quantification in water quality modelling: The influence of prior distribution
(2010) Journal of Hydrology, 392 (1-2), pp. 31-39.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Urban runoff modelling uncertainty: Comparison among Bayesian and pseudo-Bayesian methods
(2009) Environmental Modelling and Software, 24 (9), pp. 1100-1111.

de Marchis, M., Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., La Loggia, G., Napoli, E., Notaro, V.
A model of the filling process of an intermittent distribution network
(2010) Urban Water Journal, 7 (6), pp. 321-333.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Uncertainty assessment of an integrated urban drainage model
(2009) Journal of Hydrology, 373 (3-4), pp. 392-404.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Urban storm-water quality management: Centralized versus source control
(2010) Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 136 (2), art. no. 014002QWR, pp. 268-278.

Mannina, G., Freni, G., Viviani, G., Sægrov, S., Hafskjold, L.S.
Integrated urban water modelling with uncertainty analysis
(2006) Water Science and Technology, 54 (6-7), pp. 379-386.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Identifiability analysis for receiving water body quality modelling
(2009) Environmental Modelling and Software, 24 (1), pp. 54-62.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Uncertainty in urban stormwater quality modelling: The influence of likelihood measure formulation in the GLUE methodology
(2009) Science of the Total Environment, 408 (1), pp. 138-145.

Di Bella, G., Giustra, M.G., Freni, G.
Optimisation of coagulation/flocculation for pre-treatment of high strength and saline wastewater: Performance analysis with different coagulant doses
(2014) Chemical Engineering Journal, 254, pp. 283-292.

De Marchis, M., Fontanazz, C.M., Freni, G., Messineo, A., Milici, B., Napoli, E., Notaro, V., Puleo, V., Scopa, A.
Energy recovery in water distribution networks. Implementation of pumps as turbine in a dynamic numerical model
(2014) Procedia Engineering, 70, pp. 439-448.

Di Bella, G., Di Prima, N., Di Trapani, D., Freni, G., Giustra, M.G., Torregrossa, M., Viviani, G.
Performance of membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems for the treatment of shipboard slops: Assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation and biomass activity under salinity variation
(2015) Journal of Hazardous Materials, 300, pp. 765-778.

De Marchis, M., Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., La Loggia, G., Napoli, E., Notaro, V.
Analysis of the impact of intermittent distribution by modelling the network-filling process
(2011) Journal of Hydroinformatics, 13 (3), pp. 358-373.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Assessment of the integrated urban water quality model complexity through identifiability analysis
(2011) Water Research, 45 (1), pp. 37-50.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Assessment of data availability influence on integrated urban drainage modelling uncertainty
(2009) Environmental Modelling and Software, 24 (10), pp. 1171-1181.

Freni, G., Mannina, G.
Uncertainty in water quality modelling: The applicability of Variance Decomposition Approach
(2010) Journal of Hydrology, 394 (3-4), pp. 324-333.

Aronica, G., Freni, G., Oliveri, E.
Uncertainty analysis of the influence of rainfall time resolution in the modelling of urban drainage systems
(2005) Hydrological Processes, 19 (5), pp. 1055-1071.

Liuzzo, L., Bono, E., Sammartano, V., Freni, G.
Analysis of spatial and temporal rainfall trends in Sicily during the 1921–2012 period
(2016) Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 126 (1-2), pp. 113-129.

Liuzzo, L., Notaro, V., Freni, G.
A reliability analysis of a rainfall harvesting system in Southern Italy
(2016) Water (Switzerland), 8 (1), art. no. 18, .

Freni, G., Maglionico, M., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Comparison between a detailed and a simplified integrated model for the assessment of urban drainage environmental impact on an ephemeral river
(2008) Urban Water Journal, 5 (2), pp. 87-96.

Freni, G., Liuzzo, L.
Effectiveness of rainwater harvesting systems for flood reduction in residential urban areas
(2019) Water (Switzerland), 11 (7), art. no. 1389, .

Notaro, V., Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., Puleo, V.
Impact of rainfall data resolution in time and space on the urban flooding evaluation
(2013) Water Science and Technology, 68 (9), pp. 1984-1993.

Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., La Loggia, G., Notaro, V.
Uncertainty evaluation of design rainfall for urban flood risk analysis
(2011) Water Science and Technology, 63 (11), pp. 2641-2650.

Puleo, V., Morley, M., Freni, G., Savić, D.
Multi-stage linear programming optimization for pump scheduling
(2014) Procedia Engineering, 70, pp. 1378-1385.

Notaro, V., De Marchis, M., Fontanazza, C.M., La Loggia, G., Puleo, V., Freni, G.
The effect of damage functions on urban flood damage appraisal
(2014) Procedia Engineering, 70, pp. 1251-1260.

De Marchis, M., Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., Notaro, V., Puleo, V.
Experimental Evidence of Leaks in Elastic Pipes
(2016) Water Resources Management, 30 (6), pp. 2005-2019.

Freni, G., Marchis, M.D., Napoli, E.
Implementation of pressure reduction valves in a dynamic water distribution numerical model to control the inequality in water supply
(2014) Journal of Hydroinformatics, 16 (1), pp. 207-217.

Notaro, V., Liuzzo, L., Freni, G., Loggia, G.L.
Uncertainty analysis in the evaluation of extreme rainfall trends and its implications on urban drainage system design
(2015) Water (Switzerland), 7 (12), pp. 6931-6945.

De Marchis, M., Freni, G.
Pump as turbine implementation in a dynamic numerical model: Cost analysis for energy recovery in water distribution network
(2015) Journal of Hydroinformatics, 17 (3), pp. 347-360.

Marchis, M.D., Freni, G., Napoli, E.
Modelling of E. coli distribution in coastal areas subjected to combined sewer overflows
(2013) Water Science and Technology, 68 (5), pp. 1123-1136.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Stormwater infiltration trenches: A conceptual modelling approach
(2009) Water Science and Technology, 60 (1), pp. 185-199.

Di Bella, G., Di Trapani, D., Freni, G., Torregrossa, M., Viviani, G.
Analysis of biomass characteristics in MBR and MB-MBR systems fed with synthetic wastewater: Influence of a gradual salinity increase
(2014) Chemical Engineering Transactions, 38, pp. 445-450.

Puleo, V., Fontanazza, C.M., Notaro, V., De Marchis, M., Freni, G., La Loggia, G.
Pumps as turbines (PATs) in water distribution networks affected by intermittent service
(2014) Journal of Hydroinformatics, 16 (2), pp. 259-271.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Urban water quality modelling: A parsimonious holistic approach for a complex real case study
(2010) Water Science and Technology, 61 (2), pp. 521-536.

De Marchis, M., Freni, G., Napoli, E.
Three-dimensional numerical simulations on wind- and tide-induced currents: The case of Augusta Harbour (Italy)
(2014) Computers and Geosciences, 72, pp. 65-75.

Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., la Loggia, G., Notaro, V., Puleo, V.
A composite indicator for water meter replacement in an urban distribution network
(2012) Urban Water Journal, 9 (6), pp. 419-428.

Castelli, F., Freni, G., Lentini, V., Fichera, A.
Modelling of a Debris Flow Event in the Enna Area for Hazard Assessment
(2017) Procedia Engineering, 175, pp. 287-292.

Notaro, V., Liuzzo, L., Freni, G.
Reliability Analysis of Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Southern Italy
(2016) Procedia Engineering, 162, pp. 373-380.

Fontanazza, C.M., Notaro, V., Puleo, V., Nicolosi, P., Freni, G.
Contaminant intrusion through leaks in water distribution system: Experimental analysis
(2015) Procedia Engineering, 119 (1), pp. 426-433.

Sambito, M., Di Cristo, C., Freni, G., Leopardi, A.
Optimal water quality sensor positioning in urban drainage systems for illicit intrusion identification
(2020) Journal of Hydroinformatics, 22 (1), pp. 46-60.

Liuzzo, L., Sammartano, V., Freni, G.
Comparison between Different Distributed Methods for Flood Susceptibility Mapping
(2019) Water Resources Management, 33 (9), pp. 3155-3173.

Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., La Loggia, G.
Analysis of intermittent supply systems in water scarcity conditions and evaluation of the resource distribution equity indices
(2007) WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 103, pp. 635-644.

Sambito, M., Freni, G.
LCA methodology for the quantification of the carbon footprint of the integrated urban water system
(2017) Water (Switzerland), 9 (6), art. no. 395, .

Liuzzo, L., Freni, G.
Analysis of extreme rainfall trends in sicily for the evaluation of depth-duration-frequency curves in climate change scenarios
(2015) Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 20 (12), art. no. 04015036, .

Fontanazza, C.M., Notaro, V., Puleo, V., Freni, G.
The apparent losses due to metering errors: a proactive approach to predict losses and schedule maintenance
(2015) Urban Water Journal, 12 (3), pp. 229-239.

Freni, G., Mannina, G.
Uncertainty estimation of a complex water quality model: The influence of Box-Cox transformation on Bayesian approaches and comparison with a non-Bayesian method
(2012) Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 42-44, pp. 31-41.

Ferreri, G.B., Freni, G., Tomaselli, P.
Ability of Preissmann slot scheme to simulate smooth pressurisation transient in sewers
(2010) Water Science and Technology, 62 (8), pp. 1848-1858.

Candela, A., Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Quantification of diffuse and concentrated pollutant loads at the watershed-scale: An Italian case study
(2009) Water Science and Technology, 59 (11), pp. 2125-2135.

Aronica, G.T., Freni, G.
Estimation of sub-hourly DDF curves using scaling properties of hourly and sub-hourly data at partially gauged site
(2005) Atmospheric Research, 77 (1-4 SPEC. ISS.), pp. 114-123.

Candela, A., Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Receiving water body quality assessment: An integrated mathematical approach applied to an Italian case study
(2012) Journal of Hydroinformatics, 14 (1), pp. 30-47.

De Marchis, M., Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., La Loggia, G., Notaro, V., Puleo, V.
A mathematical model to evaluate apparent losses due to meter under-registration in intermittent water distribution networks
(2013) Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 13 (4), pp. 914-923.

Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., Notaro, V.
Bayesian inference analysis of the uncertainty linked to the evaluation of potential flood damage in urban areas
(2012) Water Science and Technology, 66 (8), pp. 1669-1677.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Uncertainty assessment of sewer sediment erosion modelling
(2008) Urban Water Journal, 5 (1), pp. 21-31.

Sambito, M., Freni, G.
Strategies for improving optimal positioning of quality sensors in urban drainage systems for non-conservative contaminants
(2021) Water (Switzerland), 13 (7), art. no. 934, .

Puleo, V., Sambito, M., Freni, G.
An environmental analysis of the effect of energy saving, production and recovery measures on water supply systems under scarcity conditions
(2015) Energies, 8 (6), pp. 5937-5951.

Liuzzo, L., Bono, E., Sammartano, V., Freni, G.
Long-term temperature changes in Sicily, Southern Italy
(2017) Atmospheric Research, 198, pp. 44-55.

Campo, R., Di Prima, N., Gabriella Giustra, M., Freni, G., Di Bella, G.
Performance of a moving bed-membrane bioreactor treating saline wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons from washing of oil tankers
(2016) Desalination and Water Treatment, 57 (48-49), pp. 22943-22952.

De Marchis, M., Milici, B., Freni, G.
Pressure-discharge law of local tanks connected to a water distribution network: Experimental and mathematical results
(2015) Water (Switzerland), 7 (9), pp. 4701-4723.

Sambito, M., Severino, A., Freni, G., Neduzha, L.
A systematic review of the hydrological, environmental and durability performance of permeable pavement systems
(2021) Sustainability (Switzerland), 13 (8), art. no. 4509, .

Sammartano, V., Liuzzo, L., Freni, G.
Identification of potential locations for run-of-river hydropower plants using a GIS-based procedure
(2019) Energies, 12 (18), art. no. 3446, .

Messineo, A., Freni, G., Volpe, R.
Collection of thermal energy available from a biogas plant for leachate treatment in an urban landfill: A sicilian case study
(2012) Energies, 5 (10), pp. 3753-3767.

Piazza, S., Mirjam Blokker, E.J., Freni, G., Puleo, V., Sambito, M.
Impact of diffusion and dispersion of contaminants in water distribution networks modelling and monitoring
(2020) Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 20 (1), pp. 46-58.

Freni, G., Sambito, M.
Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems
(2017) AIP Conference Proceedings, 1906, art. no. 190008, .

Campo, R., Di Prima, N., Freni, G., Giustra, M.G., Di Bella, G.
Start-up of two moving bed membrane bioreactors treating saline wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons
(2016) Water Science and Technology, 73 (4), pp. 716-724.

Fontanazza, C.M., Freni, G., La Loggia, G., Notaro, V., Puleo, V.
Evaluation of the water scarcity energy cost for users
(2013) Energies, 6 (1), pp. 220-234.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Role of modeling uncertainty in the estimation of climate and socioeconomic impact on river water quality
(2012) Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 138 (5), pp. 479-490.

Freni, G., Mannina, G., Viviani, G.
Emission standards versus immission standards for assessing the impact of urban drainage on ephemeral receiving water bodies
(2010) Water Science and Technology, 61 (6), pp. 1617-1629.

Morbidelli, R., García-Marín, A.P., Mamun, A.A., Atiqur, R.M., Ayuso-Muñoz, J.L., Taouti, M.B., Baranowski, P., Bellocchi, G., Sangüesa-Pool, C., Bennett, B., Oyunmunkh, B., Bonaccorso, B., Brocca, L., Caloiero, T., Caporali, E., Caracciolo, D., Casas-Castillo, M.C., G.Catalini, C., Chettih, M., Kamal Chowdhury, A.F.M., Chowdhury, R., Corradini, C., Custò, J., Dari, J., Diodato, N., Doesken, N., Dumitrescu, A., Estévez, J., Flammini, A., Fowler, H.J., Freni, G., Fusto, F., García-Barrón, L., Manea, A., Goenster-Jordan, S., Hinson, S., Kanecka-Geszke, E., Kar, K.K., Kasperska-Wołowicz, W., Krabbi, M., Krzyszczak, J., Llabrés-Brustenga, A., Ledesma, J.L.J., Liu, T., Lompi, M., Marsico, L., Mascaro, G., Moramarco, T., Newman, N., Orzan, A., Pampaloni, M., Pizarro-Tapia, R., Puentes Torres, A., Rashid, M.M., Rodríguez-Solà, R., Manzor, M.S., Siwek, K., Sousa, A., Timbadiya, P.V., Filippos, T., Vilcea, M.G., Viterbo, F., Yoo, C., Zeri, M., Zittis, G., Saltalippi, C.
The history of rainfall data time-resolution in a wide variety of geographical areas
(2020) Journal of Hydrology, 590, art. no. 125258, .


The La.R.A. laboratory offers a series of services for public administrations, public service managers, and private individuals aimed at the hydraulic assessment of structures based on the recent guidelines of the Basin Authority of the Hydrographic District Sicily.

The Laboratory has the know-how to delimit the river belts, define possible flood overflow areas, and hydraulically verify the works built within the belts.

Through the combination of the instruments available in the laboratories, the possibility of creating specific sensors for each individual application and the capacity for numerical hydraulic modelling, the Laboratory can develop monitoring and characterisation plans for coastal areas with skills ranging from hydraulics and sediment kinetics analysis to the chemical-physical and microbiological characterisation of potentially contaminated areas

Thanks to the long experience gained over the years, the Laboratory offers itself to resolve the many problems related to network monitoring, leakage detection, the resolution of problems related to water quality and the reliability of technical and legal measurements in the network.

Development of sensors for the integrated water service and leak detection:

Thanks to the availability of advanced micro-components, the Laboratory can develop multi-parameter sensors for specific applications or adapt the platforms already developed over the years to specific needs that may arise from the objectives of environmental monitoring and analysis of natural and climatic forcings and the management of complex hydraulic systems.

Contacts and where we are

Kore Platform – Polo Scientifico di Santa Panasia – Enna

Tel: 0935536439