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The laboratory

The Laboratory of Surveying and Representation operates as a research facility in Drawing and Surveying, also offering support to the teaching activities of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture through courses, theses and internships.

The Laboratory’s activities focus on the Survey and representation of realities at different scales, from sculptural to architectural, urban and environmental, aimed at volumetric comprehension, analysis of the laws that govern the formal and relational structure, and potentialities and criticalities, also through non-continuous monitoring operations.

From a didactic point of view, the Laboratory constitutes a space for critical-operative sharing between teachers, researchers and students in which the use of different methods of Survey, from the most traditional to the most advanced, and their integration become an opportunity for experimentation aimed at evaluating and recognising the most appropriate techniques concerning the object surveyed and the contribution that each of these methods makes to the construction of the documentary heritage.
Ample space is also given to prototyping, using reverse modelling techniques, through digital modelling and 3D printing, a subject of particular interest to the student and scientific community, as can be seen from a large number of dissertations on the subject and the practical applications in various funded research projects currently underway.

The integrated use of innovative techniques and instruments in charge of the Laboratory has the purpose of building ad hoc digital models for interpretation and consultation, which are fundamental in the current processes of knowledge, communication and valorisation of the realities investigated, as well as an essential tool for supporting and verifying the design process, but also for recognising and interpreting possible deviations and/or deformations between the object surveyed and its geometric-design correspondent.

Thanks to its highly specialised staff and the modern equipment it uses, the Laboratory provides fundamental transversal support for many of the research, prototyping, documentation and functional activities for building processes in general, both inside and outside the University of Enna Kore, also carrying out activities for third parties.


The Laboratory is located at the University’s new Research Centre in Polo scientifico e tecnologico di Santa Panasia, on the first floor of the LEDA complex. It has two rooms, one used for computational processing and post-editing activities, three fixed workstations (two of which are equipped with high-performance graphics workstations), two other workstations for reception and training activities, and a meeting table.

The second room houses the instrumentation and prototyping room, which houses the 3D printers and two other workstations for machine control.

The Laboratory complies with safety requirements for personnel and external users regarding the use of machinery inside the premises and during survey campaigns and fixed workstations, guaranteeing scrupulous observation of the prescriptions contained in its own internal and general University regulations.

The head of the Laboratory is Prof. Ing. Mariangela Liuzzo, lecturer in the Topography, Surveying and Design courses at the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture; two other engineers, PhDs in the sector, collaborate with the Laboratory.


The research activity has as its constant objective the exploration of themes and contents related to the area of Representation:

  • The urban, architectural, archaeological and territorial Survey, carried out by critically integrating traditional methods with topographic instruments and advanced photogrammetric and 3D laser scanning techniques;
  • Graphic analysis and representation through graphic, CAD and GIS, plastic and virtual models are understood as essential tools for investigation and knowledge of the complexity of reality and verification and validation, step by step, of the design transformation hypotheses.

The desired goal is not only knowledge in itself, but the democratic dissemination of that process of “adequate knowledge, understood in a complex sense, capable of triggering that symbiosis between cultural development and economic development that \[…] becomes fundamental for inserting a territory, however well-known and emblematic, into a vital circuit that must be self-sustaining” (Valenti R. 2011); a vital circuit that can only be triggered by spreading new profitable relationships of interaction between operators and users of the territory, as advocated by the current directives in support of research and sustainable development, which promote ideas and projects aimed at the creation of smart cities and smart communities, i.e. characterised by the application of new information and communication technologies to improve governance, management and the sensitive and sustainable use of goods and services.

The laboratory carries out teaching and research activities for students during their internships, dissertations and doctoral theses.

The Laboratory of Surveying and Representation has carried out its activities within the framework of several funded research projects, in which the University of Enna Kore was a partner or leader, in particular:

Project “PRISMA – Interoperable cloud platforms for SMART-government”, (duration 32 months) financed under the National Operational Programme PON Research and Competitiveness 2007-2013 for the Convergence Regions – Axis II “Support for innovation”, Project code:
PON04a2_A/5, CUP:

Project “SINAPSIS- SIstema NAzionale Protezione SIti Sensibili”, (duration 36 months) funded under the National Operational Programme PON Research and Competitiveness 2007-2013 – Action II “Support for industrial research”, project code PON01_01063;

Project MARTE- Remote Controlled Aerial Vehicle for the Detection of Territory”, (duration 39 months) financed under Line of Intervention of the POR FESR Sicily 2007-2013 – Support Actions for Research and Experimental Development, Sicilian Region, Department of Productive Activities, (DDS n. 3413/3 of 04 August 2011;

Project ARS01_00926 “eWAS – An early warning system for cultural heritage” (duration 36 months) financed by MIUR – PON RICERCA & INNOVAZIONE 2014-2020 based on notice no.1735 of 13 July 2017, “Industrial Research and Experimental Development Projects in the 12 Areas of Specialisation identified by PNR 2015-2020”;

Project ARS01_00158 “TEMI MIRATI – Innovative Technologies and Models for Risk Mitigation in Critical Infrastructures” (duration 36 months) financed by MIUR under the notice no. 1735/Ric. of 13 July 2017, “Industrial Research and Experimental Development projects in the 12 Areas of Specialisation identified by the PNR 2015-2020.

Research agreements have been concluded with:

  • The University of Catania, convention entitled “The Baroque Domes of Catania:
    Geometrical-Architectural and Technical-Constructive Analysis’;
  • The University of Catania, convention entitled “Multidisciplinary investigations on Roman architecture in Eastern Sicily”;
  • Regional Museum Service of the Villa Romana del Casale in Piazza Armerina, for scientific collaboration activities under the coordinated text of the Code of Cultural Heritage and Landscape;
  • Archaeological Park of the Valley of the Temples in Agrigento, for scientific collaboration activities according to the coordinated text of the Code of Cultural Heritage and Landscape;
  • Leonardo Solutions s.r.l., for collaboration in experimental research activities in the field of interventions and restoration techniques for walls affected by rising capillary damp;
  • “Centre for The Study of Ancient Sicily”, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada), e University of Catania, per “Agreement of Cooperation e Protocol for International Scientific Research;
  • Cathedral Church of St. Nicholas of Bari and Municipality of Nicosia, agreement for technical-scientific consultancy activities aimed at creating a digital platform for the knowledge, virtual fruition and valorisation of the painted wooden ceiling of the Cathedral Church of Nicosia.

FAI – Fondo Ambiente Italiano (Italian Environment Fund)- funded a one-year research grant to develop the Survey and digital representation programme of the Giardino Della Kolymbetra in the Valle Dei Templi Park in Agrigento.

Over the years, the Laboratory has participated in archaeological survey campaigns at the sites of Piazza Armerina, Megara Hyblaea, Gerace and Agrigento, while various surveys on an urban-architectural scale, with particular reference to the Sicilian castle system, have been carried out at the sites of Aci Castello, Maletto, Nicosia, Forza d’Agrò and Paternò.


  • no. 1 Total station, Leica Viva TS11, with 1 tripod, 1 prism, 1 pole;
  • no. 1 Sokkia Total Station, with Allegro CX controller, split eyepiece, 360° prism, SOKKIA aluminium tripod, telescopic pole, SOKKIA 22X auto level;
  • no. 1 3d Laser Scanner, Leica C10/C5, with 4 magnetic targets, 1 tripod, 2 twin poles, battery charger;
  • no. 1 Leica Viva CS15 GPS receiver, with Viva GS15 antenna and pole;
  • no. 1 Leica CS15 GPS receiver, with GS14 GPS antenna and pole;
  • no. 1 Leica GX 1230 GPS receiver, with Leica AX1202 antenna, Leica tripod;
  • no. 1 Leica DNA03 Digital Spirit Level, with tripod;
  • no. 1 Sokkia 22X Autolevel with an aluminium tripod, aluminium telescopic rod;
  • no. 2 Leica DISTO D51 laser distance meter, with goggles, reflective plates;
  • 1 GIMAX 3D Standard V2.0 3D Printer;
  • no. 1 Scan&Go multiaxial levelling platform, with a controller, brackets, mounting bars;
  • no. 1 Parrot Anafi Drone, with 3 batteries and controller;
  • 1 HP IPAQ RX1950 Series handheld;
  • no. 1 PC, ASUS Essentio Series, with HP x20 Led monitor, keyboard and mouse;
  • no. 1 Workstation DELL Precision T3610 with monitor, keyboard and mouse;
  • no. 1 Laser Multifunction Printer Samsung Xpress M2070;
  • no. 1 HP ScanJet 8300 Flatbed Scanner;
  • No. 1 Notebook HP Compaq 8510W.

Research products and publications

Only publications from recent years are presented.

  1. Gueli A.M., Liuzzo M., Margani G., Pasquale S., Politi G., Stella G. (2021), An interdisciplinary approach for the investigation and dating of Roman thermal buildings: the Indirizzo Baths at Catania, Sicily, in TEMA: Technologies Engineering Materials Architecture , Vol. 7, No. 1 (2021) , e-ISSN 2421-4574
  2. Liuzzo M. (2020), A note on the 3D Computer-Generated Models of the Gerace Bath Building, Appendix to R.J.A. Wilson, “The Baths on the Estate of thr Philippiani at Gerace, Sicily”. American Journal of Archeology, vol. 124, no.3, 2020, pp. 477-510. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.3764/aja.124.3.0477, Accessed 18 Dec. 2020, pp. 503-510;
  3. Campisi M.T., Giuliano S., and Liuzzo M. (2019), 3D integrated surveys and stratigraphic methods for a deeper understanding of historical buildings. A case-study of the Franciscan monastery and the Immacolata church in Troina, Sicily, Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2/W11, 345-352. https.//doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W11-345-2019,2019;
  4. Liuzzo M., Feo R., Giuliano S., and Pampalone V. (2019), A combined approach for surveying complex coastal sites, Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2/W9, 425-432. https.//doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W9-425-2019,2019;
  5. Liuzzo M., Margani G., Wilson R.J.A. (2018), The Indirizzo Roman baths at Catania, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 31 (2018), pp 193-221 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1047759418001289;
  6. Gagliano A., Liuzzo M., Margani G., Pettinato W. (2017), Thermo-hygrometric behaviour of Roman thermal buildings: the “Indirizzo” Baths of Catania (Sicily), in Energy and Buildings, Volume 138, 1 March 2017, pp. 704-715, ISSN 0378-7788;
  7. Brienza E., Caliò L.M., Liuzzo M. (2016), Towards a new definition of ancient Akragas’ urban grid. Preliminary contribution for a new image of the city, in SCIRES-it SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, Vol 6, Issue: 2, pp. 49-60, e-ISSN 2239-4303;
  • Liuzzo M., Giuliano S.
    (2019), The modelling of urban systems in the relationship between anthropogenic and natural elements, in Urban Centres documentation and development perspectives, PhD Kore Review no. 12, special issue July 2019, Euno Edizioni, Leonforte (EN), ISSN 2039-5434, pp.
    39-53, isbn 978-88-3334-043-2;
  • Florian L.
    (2017), From tracing to construction: the Survey of dome systems in eastern Sicily, PhD Kore Review, 5/2017, Euno Edizioni, Leonforte (EN), pp 139-148;
    Liuzzo M., Brienza E., Giuliano S.
    (2017), Integrated survey techniques for archaeological frameworks and context documentation: methodological notes for a multi-scale approach, in DISEGNARECON, Archaeological Drawing, volume 10/n. 19 – December 2017, pp.
  • Campisi M.T., Dispinseri M., Giuliano S., Liuzzo M.
    (2017), Studies on the convent of S. Francesco and the church of the Immacolata in Troina, in PhD Kore Review no. 6, July 2017, Euno Edizioni, Leonforte (EN), ISSN 2039-5434, pp.
  • Brienza E., Caliò L.M., Liuzzo M.
    (2016), Survey, 3d Modelling ad Gis for Interpretation, Communication and Enhancement of Archaeological Heritage.
    Landscape Archaeology in Agrigento, in UNISCAPE En-Route – a.I, n. 4, pp.
    88-90, ISSN 2281-3195;
  • Liuzzo M., Giuliano S., Russo A.
    (2016), Among Topos, Geometry and Harmony: the Archaeological Site of the Greek Theatre of Akrai, in UNISCAPE En-Route – a.I, n. 4, pp.
    205-212, ISSN 2281-3195;
  • Brienza E., Caliò L.M., Furcas G.L., Giannella F., Liuzzo M.
    (2016), For a new definition of the urban grid of ancient Akragas.
    Preliminary contribution to a city’s new image, in Archeologia Classica, vol.
    LXVII – n.s. II, 6, 2016, L’ERMA di Bretschneider, Rome, ISSN 0391-8165, ISBN CARTACEO 978-88-913-0958-7, ISBN DIGITALE 978-88-913-0962-4, pp.
  • Liuzzo M., Caraccio D., Di Maggio E., Alessandra F.
    (2020), From the integrated Survey to the virtual enjoyment of the ruined, fortified Sites.
    The case study of the Castle of Nicosia (Enna), in Barba S., Limongiello M., Parrinello S. Dell’Amico A. (a cura di), D-SITE Drones – System of Information on cultural Heritage. For a spatial and social investigation, Edizioni Pavia University, Pavia 2020, pp 40-49. ISBN 9788869521201;
  • Liuzzo M., Di Maggio E., Giuliano S.
    (2017), The three-dimensional survey for reading the ancient urban configuration of Agrigento, in Caliò L.M., Caminneci V., Liviadiotti M., Parello M.C., Rizzo M.S. (a cura di), AGRIGENTO New research on the central public area, Edizioni Quasar, Roma 2017, ISBN 9788871407968 pp.
  • Floriano L., Liuzzo M., Margani G.
    (2021), Geometric Characterization of Late-Baroque Domes in Sicily, in Nexus 20/21 Architecture and Mathematics, Conference Book, Kaiserslautern, Germany, 26-29 July 2021, Kim Williams Books, ISBN 978-88-88479-49-1, p. 245-250
  • Barresi P., Liuzzo M., Scialfa M.
    (2021), For a socio-economic reading of housing contexts: the I E/F house in insula I of the Hellenistic-Roman Quarter of Agrigento.
    In Martin Bentz and Michael Heinzelmann (editors), Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn, 22 – 26 May 2018, Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World, Propylaeum, Heidelberg University Library 2021, Volume 41, pp.
  • Brocato M., Caraccio D., Cascone D., Jonard L., Lo Iacono F., Liuzzo M., Navarra G., Oliva M., Rahmouni K., Skinazi J., Tesoriere G., Tumbarello S.
    (2020), Shake table tests on full-scale Confined Stone Walls, in Santi Maria Cascone, Giuseppe Margani, Vincenzo Sapienza (eds.), NEW HORIZONS FOR SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE, Proceedings of Colloqui.AT.e 2020, Edicom Edizioni, Monfalcone (Gorizia) pp.
    1280-1293 ISBN 978-88-96386-94-1;
  • Floriano L., Liuzzo M., Margani G.
    (2019), Best-fit Analysis for the Geometry Characterization of Domes.
    Cocchiarella L. (eds) ICGG 2018 – Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of Geometry and Graphics.
    ICGG 2018.
    Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 809, Sopringer, Cham, pp.
  • Floriano L., Liuzzo M., Margani G.
    (2018) Geometry and Construction Techniques of Late-Baroque Domes in Central-Eastern Sicily.
    Proceedings of the 4th Biennial of Architectural and Urban Restoration, BRAU4, Catania 15–30 April 2018, CICOP 2018, pp.
    691-701, ISBN 978-88-909116-5-1.
  • Floriano L., Liuzzo M., Margani G.
    (2018), Integrated archival and geometric analysis of two XVIII century domes in Sicily, in Salerno Rossella (by), Drawing as (in)tangible representation, Proceedings of the 40th International Conference of Teachers of Representational Disciplines – Fifteenth UID Congress, Milan 13-15 September 2018, Gangemi, Rome 2018, pp.
    563-572, ISBN 9788849236514
  • Liuzzo M., Giuliano S.
    (2018), Modelling to read the relationship between city and territory.
    The case study of Enna (Modelling for reading the relationship between city and territory.
    The Enna case study), in Salerno Rossella (ed.), Drawing as (in)tangible representation, Proceedings of the 40th International Conference of Teachers of Representational Disciplines – Fifteenth UID Congress, Milan 13-15 September 2018, Gangemi, Rome 2018, pp.
    1181-1188, ISBN 9788849236514
  • Bosch Folch G., Crespo Cabillo I., Liuzzo M., Marzullo C.
    (2017), The shared frontiers of architectural teaching.
    The KORE – ETSAV international course study experience, in Di Luggo A., Giordano P., Florio R., Papa L.M., Rossi A., Zerlenga O., Barba S., Campi M., Cirafici A. (eds.), Territories and Frontiers of Representation, Proceedings of the 39th International Conference of Teachers of the Disciplines of Representation – Fourteenth UID Congress, Naples 14-16 September 2017, Gangemi, Rome 2017, pp.
    1399-1406, ISBN 9788849235074
  • Liuzzo M., Di Maggio E., Giuliano S.
    (2017), The territorial model: from laser scanner survey to 3D printing research, in T. Empler (ed.), 3D MODELING & BIM.
    Planning, design, proposals for reconstruction.
    Proceedings of the Workshop 3DModeling&BIM.
    Planning, design, proposals for reconstruction, Rome 19-20 April 2017, Rome, Tipografia del Genio Civile, ISBN 978 88 49645019, pp.
  • Floriano L., Liuzzo M., Margani G.
    (2017), The baroque domes in Catania (Sicily), in Gambardella C., World Heritage and Disaster.
    Knowledge, Culture and Representation _ XV International Forum of Studies Le Vie dei Mercanti., Naples and Capri, 15-17 June 2017, Fabbrica della Conoscenza n° 71, La Scuola di Pitagora Editrice, Naples 2017, ISBN 9788865425824, pp.
  • Liuzzo M., Giuliano S.
    (2016), From surveying to dissemination: integrated methodologies for the virtual fruition of the territory, in Capano F., Pascariello M.I., Visone M. (editors), Delli Aspetti de Paesi Vecchi e nuovi Media per l’Immagine del Paesaggio, Atti del VII Convegno Internazionale di Studi CIRICE 2016, 27-29 October 2016, Tomo secondo Rappresentazione, memoria, conservazione, Cirice 2016, ISBN 9788899930011, pp.
    327- 336
  • Liuzzo M., Giuliano S., Di Maggio E.
    (2016), Modus e Modellus per l’analisi multisemantica di un fragmento architettonico (Modus and Modellus for the multi-semantic analysis of an architectonic fragment), in Bertocci S., Bini M. (eds.), Le Ragioni del Disegno.
    Thought, Form and Model in the Management of Complexity, Proceedings of the 38th International Conference of Teachers of the Disciplines of Representation – XIII Congress of the Italian Union of Drawing, Florence 15-17 September 2016, Gangemi, pp 409-414
  • Liuzzo M., Di Maggio E., Feo R., Floriano L., Giuliano S., Savarino S.
    (2016), Recovering an urban centre: the case of Enna from scars to open wounds, in Gambardella C. (a cura di), World Heritage and Degradation.
    Smart Design, Planning and Technologies.
    Le Vie dei Mercanti.
    XIV International Forum of Studies, Naples and Capri, 16-18 June 2016, Fabbrica della Conoscenza n° 61, La Scuola di Pitagora Editrice, Naples 2016, p. 631-640, ISBN 9788865422571


The Laboratory offers the following services to organisations outside the University:

  • Topographic survey campaigns with GPS instrumentation;
  • Topographic survey campaigns with total station;
  • Photogrammetric surveys;
  • 3D laser scanner surveys;
  • Surveys for photo modelling from the ground (with a digital camera) or from an aerial flight (using a drone) with GPS support;
  • Creation of two-dimensional graphic models of architectural type (plans, elevations, sections, orthophotos) and territorial type (elevated plans, contour plans, DTM);
  • Creation of 3D models (meshes and point clouds);
  • Realisation of rendered solid models with photorealistic insertions;
  • Realisation of physical models and prototyping through 3D printing by extrusion;
  • Realisation of BIM models.

Contacts and where we are

Engineering and Architecture Research Centre, Polo scientifico e tecnologico di Santa Panasia, 94100 Enna EN

Laboratory manager: Prof. Mariangela Liuzzo, mariangela.liuzzo@unikore.it